How to Increase Drone Flight Time and Lift Capacity
The goal of this report is to demonstrate a simple process to extend your multicopter flight time. Many concepts presented here also apply to fixed-wings vehicles.
The optimization process is a loop, so we need to start by making some assumptions. First, let’s assume that the drone already flies, so you have an existing design from which you know the weight and the battery size. Additionally, we will optimize a multi-rotor that is mostly hovering. (our drone is neither a racing drone nor a competition drone).
To understand the process, we will illustrate this article with the Otus Quadcopter, but this method is applicable to any flying UAV.
The first unoptimized version of our quadcopter has:
- 4 propellers: Gemfan 5040
- 4 motors: Hypetrain 2207-2450Kv motors
- 4 ESCs: Afro 20A Race Spec Mini ESC with BEC
- 1 battery: Turnigy nano-tech 1300mAh 4S 45~90C Lipo Pack
- Frame and payload
- Otus Tracker
- Flight time ≈ 4min
1) How does a drone fly?
The first step is to understand how a drone can fly and take-off. The rotation of the propellers generate thrust and allows the drone to rise and maintain flight. At hover, the combined thrust of the propellers is equal to the drone’s total weight.
From this assumption and with the weight of the drone, we can deduce the thrust required by each propeller in order to maintain hover. Here, our drone weighs 777g (with the Otus Tracker), so we need a total thrust of 7.64N to hover or 1.91N per propeller. The Otus Tracker is used to keep the quad hovering automatically in the same spot.
To keep a good control authority, the maximum thrust achievable by the propeller should be about twice the hovering thrust. Keep in mind this is just a recommendation. Racing quads will have a much higher maximum thrust to weight ratio.
We are looking for the most efficient propeller producing 1.9N of thrust that has a maximum size of 6 inches, and can achieve 3.82 N of peak thrust.
We can vary parameters such as pitch, size, profile, material, and brand.
2) What do we exactly mean by efficiency?
Efficiency is the ratio of the output divided by the input. Here, the propellers convert mechanical energy to thrust.
3) Choose a propeller for the quadcopter
Make an initial selection of propellers from manufacturer data. Unfortunately, propeller testing is not standardized, and you cannot compare the data provided by different manufacturers. You can use our thrust stand and dynamometer Series 1585 to test all your propellers with the same motor and record thrust, torque, voltage, current, motor rotation speed, and vibration. Optionally, you can use the database upload feature of the App that will walk you through the test process with a test script.
We want to measure thrust, torque and rotation speed. Propeller data is independent from motor data when you rely on torque and speed. The thrust of a specific propeller depends only on the propeller speed and the incoming air speed, not on the motor powering the propeller. Regardless of the motor you choose, the thrust generated will be the same at a given rotation speed. This property is useful to check that your tests were performed correctly. The data points on a thrust vs. rotation speed graph for a single propeller tested with multiple motors should all be very close to the same line as in the image below.
Example: propeller Gemfan 6030 with differents motors
When you have the desired torque and speed for the most efficient propeller at hover, you can perform a search for the motor that is the most efficient at this torque and speed.
Let’s focus on only 3 propellers to keep this simple. We will test them with the thrust stand Series 1585:
- 6030R Gemfan => diameter: 6 in, pitch: 3 in, weight 2.22g
- 6040R King Kong => diameter: 6 in, pitch: 4 in, weight 3.38g
- 5030R Gemfan => diameter: 5 in, pitch: 4 in, weight 3g
The test can be done manually, or with a script. We performed the test with a script and compared the results in our database. Here is a comparison of the propeller mechanical efficiency (N/W) as a function of thrust (N).
As shown in the graph, at 1.9N, the best propeller is the Gemfan 6030 at 0.077N/W. We rule out the two other propellers as they have a lower efficiency.
The Gemfan 6030 is the most efficient propeller at 1.9N, and it generates 0.0184 N.m of torque at 1300 rad/s.
4) Choose the most efficient motor for your propeller and your vehicle.
Now that we found a propeller, we are looking for the most efficient motor at the operating point of 0.0184 N.m and 1300 rad/s. We limit our search to 2 different motors for the purpose of this tutorial, but in reality, there are a lot more candidates to choose from.
This graph shows the mechanical efficiency of the tested motors when they are equipped with a Gemfan 6030. At 1.9 N of thrust, the efficiency of the Multistar is 68% while the efficiency of the EMAX is 60%. Thus, we conclude that for this specific propeller at hover, the most efficient motor is the Multistar Elite 2306.
The graph above shows the efficiency difference for the torque-speed line of two propellers. We did not determine that the Multistar is a better motor in general, only that it performs better for this specific propeller. The Emax may be more efficient than the Multistar with another propeller.
Another thing we must check is that this motor is also capable of generating the peak propeller thrust for sufficient control authority. Earlier, we said we are looking for the most efficient propeller at 1.9N of thrust and that can achieve 3.8 N of thrust peak. At 3.8N, the motor must be capable of generating 0.035 N.m of torque at 1783 rad/s.
We confirm this graphically. This motor is capable of generating the 3.8N peak thrust as well.
5) Choose an ESC
Once the motor and propellers are chosen, we can select a suitable ESC. For now, we just pick an ESC capable of delivering the motor’s peak current of 7 Amps with a safety factor. We choose the Afro Race Spec Mini ESC which supports 20 Amps. There are some optimizations that can be done on the ESC, but it is out of the scope of this article.
6) Calculate the Flight Time
How the flight time is calculated?
The capacity of the battery (Ebattery in Wh) can be expressed as the Flight Time (FTin hours) multiplied by the generated power (Power in Watt).
The battery capacity (Ebattery) is equal to the weight of the battery (Wbattery in gramm) multiplied by the energy density (sigmabattery in Wh/g).
The total power (Power in Watt) is equal to the weight of the drone (Wdrone (g) = Wframe (g) + Wbattery (g)) divided by the propellers efficiency (propefficiency in g/W).
The propeller efficiency is a function of the total weight of the drone divided by the number of propellers on your drone
So by combining the equations, we obtain the flight time [eq1]:
An increase of the weight of the battery increases division term in the equation above, but reduces the propeller efficiency.
Those formulas are implemented in the spreadsheet here:
There are some assumptions that you must add in the google sheet, including the weight and the capacity of your battery. Also write the total weight of your quad (WITHOUT the battery) and the number of propellers. Now you have everything to calculate the flight time!
You can see the effect of varying the battery capacity. As you can see, increasing the battery to a 33.3 mAh increases the flight time by a few minutes but reduces the control authority. Going even bigger shows very little benefits, but increases noise and reduces control authority.
We saw how to choose a propeller, a motor, an ESC and a battery for our drone, how to compare efficiency, analyze data and calculate the flight time. All those modifications could change the total weight of your drone (especially if you choose another battery). You may need to restart the analysis if your change significantly the weight of the drone.
Regardless of the tool used to capture the data, we strongly recommend that you measure torque during your tests. This will allow you to separate motor and propeller data, and measure efficiency. We designed multiple tools to make the data collection and analysis easier and more accurate. The automatic testing capability of the Series 1585 combined with the database should allow you to select the best motor, propeller and ESC in a few hours of testing. The tests can increase flight time, payload capacity, and it reduce the heat produced by the system, which increases the life of your components.
If you want to dig deeper in the subject of motor theory to fully optimize your motor, watch the video “Improving motor and propeller performance” on our channel: